Rules of Squash
Squash League Rules
Squash League Software
The game of Singles Squash is played between two players, each using a racket, with a ball and in a court, all three of which meet WSF specifications
Only the server scores points. The server, on winning a rally, scores a point; the receiver, on winning a rally, becomes the server.
A match shall consist of the best of three or five games at the option of the organisers of the competition. The player who scores nine points wins the game, except that on the score reaching eight-all for the first time, the receiver shall choose, before the next service, to continue that game either to nine points (known as "Set one") or to ten points (known as "Set two"). In the latter case the player who scores two more points wins the game. The receiver shall clearly indicate this choice to the Marker, Referee and the opponent.
The Marker shall call "Set one" or "Set two" as applicable before play continues.
The Marker shall call "Game ball" to indicate that the server requires one point to win the game in progress or "Match ball" to indicate that the server requires one point to win the match.
Immediately preceding the start of play both players shall be allowed onto the court of play for a period of five minutes to warm-up together.
After two and a half minutes of the warm-up, the Referee shall call "Half time" and the players shall change sides unless they have already done so. The Referee shall also advise the players when the warm-up period is complete with the call of "Time".
In the warm-up both players must have equal opportunities of striking the ball. A player retaining the strike for an unreasonable time is warming up unfairly. The Referee shall decide when the warm-up is unfair and apply Rule 17.
Either player may warm the ball up during any interval.
The players may warm the ball up to playing condition after any interval at the discretion of the Referee.
4.2 At the beginning of each game and each hand the server shall choose from which box to serve and thereafter shall serve from alternate boxes while remaining the server. However, if a rally ends in a let, the server shall serve again from the same box.
If the server moves to the wrong box, or either player is uncertain of the correct box for serving, the Marker shall announce the correct box. The Referee shall rule on the correct box if the Marker is uncertain or incorrect, or there is a dispute.
4.3 To serve, a player shall release the ball from either a hand or the racket and then strike it. Should the player make no attempt to strike it after that release, the player shall release the ball again for that service.
4.4 A service is good if all the conditions in Rules 4.4.1 - 4.4.5 are met:
4.4.1 the server has part of one foot in contact with the floor within the service box without any part of that foot touching the service box line (part of that foot may project over this line if it does not touch the line) at the time of striking the ball;
4.4.2 the server, after releasing the ball for service, strikes it correctly on the first or further attempt before the ball falls to the floor, touches a wall, or touches anything the server wears;
4.4.3 the server strikes the ball directly onto the front wall between the service and out lines;
4.4.4 unless volleyed by the receiver, the first bounce of the ball on the floor is in the quarter court opposite the server's box without touching the short or half court lines;
4.4.5 the server does not serve the ball out.
4.5 A service which does not meet the requirements of Rules 4.4.1 - 4.4.5 is not good and the Marker shall make the appropriate call.
The calls are:
"foot-fault" for Rule 4.4.1
"not up" for Rule 4.4.2
"fault" for Rule 4.4.3 if the ball strikes a side wall first or the front wall on or below the service line but above the board
"down" for Rule 4.4.3 if the ball strikes on or below the board or on the floor
"fault" for Rule 4.4.4
"out" for Rule 4.4.5
A service in which the ball is considered to have struck the front wall and a side wall simultaneously is not good and is called "fault".
4.6 The server must not serve until the Marker has completed calling the score. The Marker must call the score without delay. If the server serves or attempts to serve prior to the Marker completing the calling of the score, the Referee shall stop play and require the server to wait until the Marker has completed calling the score.
After the server delivers a good service, the players return the ball alternately until one fails to make a good return, the ball otherwise ceases to be in play in accordance with the rules, a player appeals, or the Marker or Referee makes a call.
A return is good if all the conditions in Rules 6.1 - 6.3 are met.
6.1 The striker returns the ball correctly before it has bounced twice on the floor.
6.2 The ball strikes the front wall above the board, either directly or via side wall(s) and/or the back wall, without first touching the floor or any part of the striker's body or apparel, or the opponent's racket, body or apparel.
6.3 The ball is not out or down
After the server delivers the first service, play shall be continuous so far as is practical.
7.1 At any time the Referee may suspend play owing to bad light or other circumstances beyond the control of the players and officials, for such period as the Referee shall decide. The score shall stand. If another court is available and the original court remains unsuitable for play, the Referee may transfer the match to it.
7.2 There shall be a 90 second interval between the end of the warm-up and the commencement of the first game and between all games. Players may leave the court during these intervals but must be ready to play prior to the expiry of the 90 second interval.
By mutual consent of the players, play may commence or resume prior to the expiry of the 90 second interval.
(G1) 7.3 If a player satisfies the Referee that a change of equipment, clothing or footwear is necessary, the player may leave the court to effect the change as quickly as possible but must do so within 90 seconds.
7.4 When 15 seconds of a permitted 90 second interval remain the Referee shall call "Fifteen seconds" to advise the players to be ready to resume play. At the end of 90 seconds the Referee shall call "Time".
It is the responsibility of the players to be in a position to hear the calls of "Fifteen seconds" and "Time".
Should one or both players not be ready to resume play when "Time" is called, the Referee shall apply Rule 17.
7.5 If a player is injured, ill or disabled the Referee shall apply Rule 16.
(G2) 7.6 The Referee, on deciding that a player has delayed play unreasonably, shall apply Rule 17.
(G3) 7.7 If an object, other than a player's racket, falls to the floor of the court while a rally is in progress the requirements are:
7.7.1 the Referee, on becoming aware of a fallen object, shall stop play immediately;
7.7.2 a player becoming aware of a fallen object may stop play and appeal.
7.7.3 If the object falls from a player, that player shall lose the rally, unless Rule 7.7.5 applies or the cause is a collision with the opponent. In the latter case the Referee shall allow a let, unless the player appeals for a let because of interference in which case the Referee shall apply Rule 12.
7.7.4 If the object falls from a source other than a player, the Referee shall allow a let unless Rule 7.7.5 applies.
7.7.5 If the player has already made a winning return when the object falls to the floor, that player shall win the rally.
7.7.6 If a dropped object remains unnoticed until the end of the rally, the result of the rally shall stand.
(G3) 7.8 If a player drops a racket, the Referee shall allow the rally to continue, unless interference occurred (Rule 12), the ball touched the racket (Rule 13.1.1), distraction occurred (Rule 13.1.3), or the Referee applies a conduct penalty (Rule 17).
A player wins a rally if:
8.1 the opponent fails to deliver a good service (Rule 4.4);
8.2 the opponent fails to make a good return (Rule 6), unless the Referee allows a let or awards a stroke to the opponent;
(G4) 8.3 the ball touches the opponent (including anything worn or carried), without interference, when the opponent is the non-striker, except as is otherwise provided for in Rules 9 and 10. If interference occurs then the provisions of Rule 12 apply. In all cases the Referee shall make the decision;
8.4 the Referee awards a stroke to the player as provided for in the Rules.
HITTING THE OPPONENT AND A PLAYER TURNING
(G4) 9.1 If the striker hits the ball which, before reaching the front wall, hits the opponent (including anything worn or carried), play shall cease. The Referee, in addition to considering possible infringement of Rule 17, shall assess the ballís trajectory and shall:
9.1.1 award a stroke to the striker if the return would have been good and the ball would have struck the front wall without first touching any other wall, unless Rule 9.1.2 or 9.1.3 applies;
(G4 & G5) 9.1.2 if the striker turned, award a stroke to the opponent, unless the opponent made a deliberate movement to intercept the return, in which case the Referee shall award the stroke to the striker;
(G5) 9.1.3 if the strikerís return is a further attempt, allow a let, provided that Rule 9.1.2 does not apply;
9.1.4 allow a let if the ball either had struck or would have struck any other wall before the front wall and the return would have been good, unless Rule 9.1.5 applies;
9.1.5 if deciding the return would have been a winning return, award a stroke to the striker;
9.1.6 award a stroke to the opponent if the return would not have been good.
(G5) 9.2 If the striker turns:
9.2.1 the striker may, before striking the ball, out of fear of hitting the opponent with the ball, stop and appeal. The Referee shall:
126.96.36.199 allow a let, if deciding that there was a reasonable fear of the ball hitting the opponent and the striker would have been able to make a good return unless Rule 9.2.3 applies or
188.8.131.52 not allow a let, if deciding that the striker could not have made a good return.
9.2.2. The striker may, because of interference, stop play and appeal. The Referee shall:
184.108.40.206 allow a let, if deciding that the striker is unable to complete an attempt to play the ball because of interference by the opponent or
220.127.116.11 award a stroke to the striker, if deciding that the opponent did not make every effort to avoid the interference on turning, or
18.104.22.168 not allow a let, if deciding that the striker could not have made a good return regardless of the interference.
9.2.3 The Referee shall not allow a let if deciding that the act of turning was to create the opportunity to appeal rather than an attempt to return the ball.
ATTEMPTS TO HIT THE BALL
If the striker attempts to strike the ball and misses, the striker may make further attempts.
10.1 If, after being missed, the ball touches the opponent (including anything worn or carried), the Referee shall:
10.1.1 allow a let, if deciding that the striker could otherwise have made a good return, or
10.1.2 award a stroke to the opponent, if deciding that the striker could not have made a good return.
10.2 The Referee shall allow a let if any such further attempt is successful but results in a good return being prevented from reaching the front wall by hitting the opponent, including anything worn or carried.
10.3 The striker may, because of interference on the further attempt, stop play and appeal. The Referee shall:
10.3.1 allow a let, if the striker is unable to complete a further attempt to play the ball provided a good return was possible; or
10.3.2 award a stroke to the striker, if deciding that the opponent did not make every effort to avoid the interference on the further attempt; or
10.3.3 not allow a let, if deciding that the further attempt would not have resulted in a good return.
The loser of a rally may appeal against any decision of the Marker affecting that rally.
A player should preface any appeal under Rule 11 by saying "Appeal please". Play ceases when a player appeals. The Referee, if uncertain of the reason for an appeal, may ask the player for an explanation.
If the Referee disallows an appeal under Rule 11, the Marker's decision shall stand. If uncertain, the Referee shall allow a let, except where the provisions of Rules 11.2.1, 11.5 or 11.6 apply.
Appeals and Referee interventions in specific situations are dealt with below (see also Rule 20.4).
11.1 Appeals on Service.
11.1.1 If the Marker makes a call of "Foot-fault", "Fault", "Not up", "Down" or "Out" to the service, the server may appeal. If the Referee upholds the appeal, the Referee shall allow a let.
11.1.2 If, after the service, the Marker makes no call, the receiver may appeal, either immediately or at the end of the rally. The Referee, if certain that the service was not good, shall, without waiting for an appeal, stop play and award a stroke to the opponent. In response to an appeal the Referee shall:
22.214.171.124 if certain the service was good, award a stroke to the server.
126.96.36.199 if uncertain, allow a let.
11.2 Appeals on Play other than Service.
11.2.1 A player may appeal if the Marker calls "Not up", "Down" or "Out" following that player's return. The Referee, if upholding the appeal or uncertain whether the Markerís call was correct, shall:
188.8.131.52 allow a let, unless Rule 184.108.40.206 or 220.127.116.11 apply;
18.104.22.168 award a stroke to the player, if the Marker's call interrupted that player's winning return;
22.214.171.124 award a stroke to the opponent, if the Marker's call has interrupted or prevented a winning return by the opponent.
11.2.2 If the Marker fails to call "Not up", "Down" or "Out" following a player's return, the opponent may appeal either immediately or at the end of the rally. The Referee, if certain that the return was not good, shall, without waiting for an appeal, stop play and award a stroke to the opponent. In response to an appeal the Referee shall:
126.96.36.199 if deciding the return was good, award a stroke to the player;
188.8.131.52 if uncertain, allow a let.
11.3 After the delivery of a service neither player may appeal for anything which occurred before that service, except as Rule 14.3 provides.
11.4 When the loser makes more than one appeal concerning a rally, the Referee shall consider each appeal.
11.5 If a player appeals the Marker's call of "Foot- fault", "Fault", "Not up", "Down" or "Out" to a service but that same service subsequently is clearly a fault, not up, down or out, the Referee shall rule only on the subsequent occurrence.
11.6 If a player appeals the Marker's call of "Not up", "Down" or "Out" to a return but that same return subsequently is clearly down or out, the Referee shall rule only on the subsequent occurrence.
12.1 The player whose turn it is to play the ball is entitled to freedom from interference by the opponent
12.2 To avoid interference the opponent must make every effort to provide the player with:
(G6) 12.2.1 unobstructed direct access to the ball after completion of a reasonable follow-through;
12.2.2 a fair view of the ball on its rebound from the front wall;
(G7) 12.2.3 freedom to hit the ball with a reasonable swing;
12.2.4 freedom to play the ball directly to any part of the front wall.
12.3 Interference occurs if the opponent fails to fulfil any of the requirements of Rule 12.2, even though the opponent makes every effort to fulfil those requirements.
12.4 A playerís excessive swing can contribute to interference for the opponent when it becomes the latter's turn to play the ball.
12.5 A player encountering possible interference has the choice of continuing to play or of stopping and appealing to the Referee.
(G8) 12.5.1 A player seeking a let or a stroke should appeal by saying "Let please".
(G9, G10) 12.5.2 Only the player whose turn it is to play the ball may appeal. The player must appeal either immediately the interference occurs or, when clearly not continuing play beyond the point of interference, without undue delay.
12.6 The Referee shall decide on the appeal and shall announce the decision with the words "No let", "Stroke to (name of player or team)", or "Yes let" (see flowchart in Appendix 4.1). The Referee alone makes all decisions, which are final. The Referee, if uncertain of the reason for an appeal, may ask the player for an explanation.
12.7 The Referee shall not allow a let and the player shall lose the rally if the Referee decides:
(G6) 12.7.1 there was no interference or the interference was so minimal that the playerís fair view of the ball and freedom to get to and play the ball were not affected;
(G6) 12.7.2 interference occurred but either the player would not have made a good return or the player has not made every effort to get to and play the ball;
12.7.3 the player moved past the point of interference and played on;
(G11) 12.7.4 the player created the interference in moving to the ball.
12.8 The Referee shall award a stroke to the player if:
12.8.1 there was interference, which the opponent did not make every effort to avoid, and the player would have made a good return;
(G7) 12.8.2 there was interference, which the opponent made every effort to avoid, but the opponentís position prevented the playerís reasonable swing and the player would have been able to make a good return; (G7) 12.8.3 there was interference, which the opponent made every effort to avoid, and the player would have made a winning return;
12.8.4 the player refrained from hitting the ball which, if hit, would clearly have struck the opponent going directly to the front wall; or to a side wall but in the latter case would have been a winning return (unless in either case turning or further attempt applies).
12.9 The Referee shall allow a let if there was interference, which the opponent made every effort to avoid, and the player would have made a good return.
12.10 The Referee shall not award a stroke to a player who causes interference with an excessive swing.
12.11 The Referee may allow a let under Rule 12.9 or award a stroke under Rule 12.8 without an appeal, if necessary stopping play to do so.
12.12 The Referee may also apply Rule 17 when interference occurs. The Referee shall, stopping play if it has not already stopped, apply an appropriate penalty if:
(G12) 12.12.1 the player made significant or deliberate physical contact with the opponent;
12.12.2 the player endangered the opponent with an excessive swing.
In addition to lets allowed under other rules, the Referee may or shall allow lets in certain other cases. A player should request a let by saying "Let please". The Referee, if uncertain of the reason for an appeal, may ask the player for an explanation.
13.1 The Referee may allow a let if:
13.1.1 the ball in play touches any article lying on the floor (see Rule 15.3);
(G7) 13.1.2 the striker refrains from hitting the ball onto any of the walls including the back wall owing to a reasonable fear of injuring the opponent;
13.1.3 the Referee determines that an occurrence on or off the court distracted either player. A player appealing for distraction must do so immediately the distraction occurs. Notwithstanding the above the Referee may award a stroke to a player who has been distracted if that player could have played a winning return but for the distraction;
13.1.4 the Referee determines that a change in court conditions affected the result of the rally.
13.2 The Referee shall allow a let if:
13.2.1 the receiver is not ready and does not attempt to return the service;
13.2.2 the ball breaks during play;
13.2.3 the Referee is unable to decide an appeal;
13.2.4 a player makes an otherwise good return but either the ball lodges in any part of the playing surface of the court, preventing it from bouncing more than once on the floor, or the ball goes out after its first bounce.
13.3 If the striker appeals for a let under Rules 13.1.1 to 13.1.4, the Referee shall allow a let only if the striker can make a good return. For a non-striker appeal under Rules 13.1.1, 13.1.3 and 13.1.4 this is not a requirement.
13.4 If the striker attempts to play the ball, the Referee may still allow a let under Rules 13.1.1, 13.1.3, 13.1.4 and 13.2.2.
13.5 The appeals requirements of Rule 13 are:
13.5.1 a playerís appeal is necessary for the Referee to allow a let under Rules 13.1.2 (striker only), 13.1.3, 13.2.1 (receiver only) and 13.2.3;
13.5.2 a playerís appeal or Referee intervention without appeal is applicable to Rules 13.1.1, 13.1.4, 13.2.2 and 13.2.4.
14.1 At any time, when the ball is not in actual play, either player or the Referee may examine the ball. The Referee may substitute another ball by mutual consent of the players, or on appeal by either player.
14.2 If a ball breaks during play, the Referee, after confirming it is broken, shall replace it promptly with another ball.
14.3 If the ball breaks during play without being noticed during the rally, the Referee shall allow a let for the rally in which the ball broke, if the server appeals prior to the next service or if the receiver appeals prior to attempting to return that service.
(G13) 14.3.1 If the receiver appeals prior to attempting to return service and the Referee decides the ball broke during that service, the Referee shall allow a let for that rally only, but if uncertain shall allow a let for the previous rally.
14.4 The provisions of Rule 14.3 do not apply to the final rally of a game. In that case a player must appeal immediately after the rally.
14.5 If a player stops during a rally to appeal that the ball is broken, only to find subsequently that the ball is not broken, then that player shall lose the rally.
14.6 The ball shall remain within the court at all times, unless the Referee permits its removal.
14.7 When the Referee has substituted another ball or when the players resume a match after some delay, the Referee shall allow the players to warm the ball to playing condition. Play shall then resume on the direction of the Referee, or by mutual consent of the players, whichever is earlier.
OF THE PLAYERS
15.1 The players must observe all the Rules and the spirit of the game. Failure to do so could bring the game into disrepute and Rule 17 may be applied.
15.2 Players must be ready to commence play at the announced starting time of the match.
15.3 Players are not permitted to place within the court any object(s), clothing or equipment.
15.4 Players are not permitted to leave the court during a game without the permission of the Referee. If they do the Referee may apply Rule 17.
15.5 Players are not permitted to request a change of Marker or Referee.
15.6 A player must not deliberately distract the opponent. If this occurs the Referee shall apply Rule 17.
15.7 Players should preface appeals by saying "Let please" or "Appeal please" according to the circumstances. Pointing with the finger or racket, other gestures, raised eyebrows or other eye activity are not universally recognised methods of appeal.
15.8 Players must comply with any additional competition regulations (e.g. the clothing requirements of the tournament), as well as those contained in the Rules.
, ILLNESS, DISABILITY AND INJURY
16.1 Bleeding: The Referee shall immediately stop play when any player has visible bleeding, an open wound or blood-stained clothing. Before allowing play to continue the Referee shall require that the bleeding be stopped, the wound covered and any blood-stained clothing changed, allowing such time as is reasonable and necessary and is available on the tournament schedule.
If the bleeding was caused solely by the opponent, the Referee shall immediately award the match to the player.
16.1.1 Recurrence of bleeding: If the bleeding recurs, for which recovery time has already been allowed, the Referee shall allow no further recovery time except that the player may concede the game in progress and use the 90 second interval between games for recovery. If the visible bleeding continues at the end of this 90 second interval the player shall concede the match. A player may only concede one game for one 90 second interval. If the covering of the bleeding wound falls off or is removed during the match, thereby exposing the wound, the Referee shall consider this to be a recurrence of the bleeding, unless all sign of bleeding has ceased.
16.2 Illness or Disability: A player suffering illness or disability not involving bleeding has the following options:
16.2.1 resuming play without delay;
16.2.2 conceding the game in progress, accepting the 90 second interval, or
16.2.3 conceding the match.
Symptoms of tiredness, alleged illness, or disability not reasonably evident to the Referee, or recurrence of pre-existing ailments, including injuries sustained earlier in the match, shall be dealt with under this Rule 16.2. This includes cramps of any kind, actual or impending nausea and breathlessness, including asthma. The Referee shall inform the players of the decision and the requirements of the rules.
16.3.1 If a player claims that an injury has occurred, the Referee must be satisfied that the injury is genuine and, if so, decide the category of injury, informing the players of the decision and of the requirements of the rules. The player is only entitled to recovery time immediately after the injury occurred.
The categories are:
184.108.40.206 self-inflicted, where the opponent did not contribute to the injury;
220.127.116.11 contributed, where the opponent accidentally contributed to or accidentally caused the injury. The Referee shall not interpret the words "accidentally contributed to or accidentally caused by" to include the situation where a player is crowding the opponent;
18.104.22.168 opponent-inflicted, where the opponent solely caused the injury.
16.3.2 If the injury involves bleeding, Rule 16.1 shall apply until the bleeding has stopped. Subsequently Rule 16.3.3 applies.
16.3.3 If bleeding is not involved the following rules shall apply:
22.214.171.124 for a self-inflicted injury (Rule 126.96.36.199) the Referee shall allow 3 minutes for the injured player to recover. The Referee shall call "Time" at the end of the 3 minute period after giving a 15 second warning. If the player requests additional recovery time beyond 3 minutes, the Referee shall require the injured player to concede one game, accept the 90 second time interval between games and then resume play or concede the match. If the injured player has not returned to the court when "Time" is called, the Referee shall award the match to the opponent;
188.8.131.52 for a contributed injury (Rule 184.108.40.206) the Referee shall allow one hour for the injured player to recover and such additional time as the time-schedule of the competition permits. The Referee shall call "Time" at the end of any recovery time allowed. The injured player must, by the end of this period, resume play or concede the match. If the injured player resumes play, the score at the conclusion of the rally in which the injury occurred shall stand;
220.127.116.11 for an opponent-inflicted injury (Rule 18.104.22.168) the Referee shall apply Rule 17 and if the injured player requires time to recover, the Referee shall award the match to the injured player.
16.4 If an injured player, having been granted a period of recovery time, wishes to resume play prior to the expiry of that time, the Referee shall permit the opponent sufficient time to prepare to resume play.
16.5 If a player claims injury and the Referee is not satisfied that an injury has occurred, the Referee shall require the player to resume play; or concede one game, accept the time interval available and then either resume play or concede the match.
16.6 If conceding the game, the player shall retain any points already scored and at the conclusion of the 90 second interval between games shall either resume play or concede the match.
17.1 If the Referee considers that a playerís behaviour is disruptive, intimidating or offensive to the opponent, an official or a spectator, or could in any way bring the game into disrepute, the Referee shall penalise the player.
(G15) 17.2 Offences with which the Referee shall deal under this rule include audible and visible obscenities, verbal and physical abuse, dissent to Marker or Referee, abuse of racket, ball or court and coaching, other than during the interval between games. Other offences include significant or deliberate physical contact (Rule 12.12.1), excessive racket swing (Rule 12.4), unfair warm-up (Rule 3.2), late back on court (Rule 7.4), dangerous play or action (Rule 22.214.171.124) and time-wasting (Rule 7.6).
(G16) 17.3 The Referee shall apply one of the following penalties for these and any other offences.
Warning (called a Conduct Warning).
Stroke awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Stroke).
Game awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Game).
Match awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Match).
17.3.1 If the Referee stops play to give a Conduct Warning, the Referee shall allow a let.
17.3.2 During a rally, if an incident occurs warranting the award of a Conduct Stroke, the Referee shall stop play, if it has not already ceased, and award a stroke. Application of the Conduct Stroke becomes the result of the rally.
17.3.3 If the Referee awards a Conduct Stroke as a result of an incident between rallies, the result of the completed rally stands and the Conduct Stroke award is additional to the score but without further change of service box.
17.3.4 If the Referee awards a Conduct Game, that game shall be the one in progress or the next game if one is not in progress. In the latter case the interval between games shall not apply. The offending player shall retain any points already scored in the game awarded.
OF A MATCH
(G17) 18.1 A Referee, assisted by a Marker, normally controls a match. Although the Referee may undertake the duties of the Marker as well, the WSF recommends that separate officials carry out the two roles.
18.2 The correct location for the Referee and Marker is at the centre of the back wall, as close to that wall as possible, above the out line on the back wall and preferably with seating.
OF A MARKER
(G18) 19.1 The Marker shall call the play, followed by the score, with the server's score called first. The Marker shall call services and returns which are not good using the recognised calls of "Fault", "Foot-fault", "Not up", "Down", "Out", "Hand-out" and "Stop" (see Appendix 3.1) as appropriate and shall repeat the Referee's decisions.
19.2 At the end of the rally the Marker shall call the score without delay and after the Referee has decided any appeals.
19.3 If the Marker makes a call, the rally shall cease.
19.4 The Marker, if unsighted or uncertain, shall make no call.
19.5 If play ceases without the Marker having made a call, the Marker, if unsighted or uncertain, shall advise the players and the Referee shall make the relevant decision. If also uncertain, the Referee shall allow a let.
19.6 The Marker shall keep a written record of the score and the correct side for service.
OF A REFEREE
20.1 The Referee shall rule on all appeals, make decisions where the Rules call for them and shall decide all appeals against the Marker's calls or lack of calls. The decision of the Referee shall be final.
The Referee must announce all decisions to the players on the court and must make all calls in a voice loud enough to be heard on the court and in the gallery.
20.2 The Referee shall exercise control:
20.2.1 when one of the players appeals, including an appeal against any specification;
20.2.2 to ensure that all relevant rules are applied correctly;
20.2.3 when the behaviour of any spectator, official, manager or coach is disruptive to the play or offensive to the players, officials or spectators. The Referee shall suspend play until the disruption has ceased and, if necessary, shall require the offending person(s) to leave the court area.
20.3 The Referee shall not intervene in the Marker's calling of the score unless the Referee decides that the Marker has called the score incorrectly. In that case the Referee shall correct the score and the Marker shall repeat the corrected score.
20.4 The Referee shall not intervene in the Marker's calling of the play unless the Referee decides that the Marker has made an error in stopping play or allowing play to continue, in which case the Referee shall immediately rule accordingly.
20.5 The Referee shall enforce all Rules relating to time.
20.6 The Referee shall keep a written record of the score and the correct side for service.
20.7 The Referee is responsible for ensuring that court conditions are satisfactory for play.
20.8 The Referee may award a match to a player whose opponent is not present on court, ready to play, within ten minutes after the announced time of play.
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